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The world average annual yield of yams was 8. Roots and tubers such as yam are living organisms. When stored, they continue to respire, which results in the oxidation of the starch a polymer of glucose contained in the cells of the tuber, which converts it into water, carbon dioxide, and heat energy.
During this transformation of the starch, the dry matter of the tuber is reduced. Amongst the major roots and tubers, properly stored yam is considered to be the least perishable.
Successful storage of yams requires:  . Storing yam at low temperature reduces the respiration rates.
The symptoms of chilling injury are not always obvious when the tubers are still in cold storage. The injury becomes noticeable as soon as the tubers are restored to ambient temperatures.
Most countries that grow yams as a staple food are too poor to afford high-technology storage systems. Sprouting rapidly increases a tuber's respiration rates, and accelerates the rate at which its food value decreases.
Certain cultivars of yams store better than others. The easier to store yams are those adapted to arid climate, where they tend to stay in a dormant low-respiration stage much longer than yam breeds adapted to humid tropical lands, where they do not need dormancy.
Yellow yam and cush-cush yam, by nature, have much shorter dormancy periods than water yam, white yam, or lesser yam.
Yams, with cassava , provide a much greater proportion of the protein intake in Africa, ranging from 5. As a relatively low-protein food, yam is not a good source of essential amino acids.
Experts emphasize the need to supplement a yam-dominant diet with more protein-rich foods to support healthy growth in children. Yam is an important dietary element for Nigerian and West African people.
It contributes more than calories per person per day for more than million people in West Africa, and is an important source of income.
Yam is an attractive crop in poor farms with limited resources. It is rich in starch, and can be prepared in many ways.
It is available all year round, unlike other, unreliable, seasonal crops. These characteristics make yam a preferred food and a culturally important food security crop in some sub-Saharan African countries.
The tubers of certain wild yams, including a variant of ' Kokoro ' yam and other species of Dioscorea , such as Dioscorea nipponica , are a source for the extraction of diosgenin , a steroid sapogenin.
The following table shows the nutrient content of yam and major staple foods in a raw harvested form. Raw forms, however, are not edible and cannot be digested.
These must be sprouted, or prepared and cooked for human consumption. In sprouted or cooked form, the relative nutritional and antinutritional contents of each of these staples is remarkably different from that of raw form of these staples.
Yams are consumed in a variety of preparations, such as flour or whole vegetable pieces across their range of distribution in Asia, Africa, North America, Central America , the Caribbean , South America, and Oceania.
Yams of African species must be cooked to be safely eaten, because various natural substances in yams can cause illness if consumed raw.
The most common cooking methods in Western and Central Africa are by boiling, frying or roasting. Among the Akan of Ghana, boiled yam can be mashed with palm oil into eto in a similar manner to the plantain dish matoke , and is served with eggs.
The boiled yam can also be pounded with a traditional mortar and pestle to create a thick, starchy paste known as iyan pounded yam or fufu which is eaten with traditional sauces such as egusi and palm nut soup.
Another method of consumption is to leave the raw yam pieces to dry in the sun. When dry, the pieces turn a dark brown color.
These are then milled to create a brown powder known in Nigeria as elubo. The powder can be mixed with boiling water to create a thick starchy paste, a kind of pudding known as amala , which is then eaten with local soups and sauces.
Yams are still important for survival in these regions. Some varieties of these tubers can be stored up to six months without refrigeration, which makes them a valuable resource for the yearly period of food scarcity at the beginning of the wet season.
Yam cultivars are also cultivated in other humid tropical countries. Yam is the main staple crop of the Igbos in south eastern Nigeria where for centuries it played a dominant role in both their agricultural and cultural life.
It is celebrated with annual yam festivals. Yams are particularly consumed in the coastal area of the Northeast region , although they can be found in other parts of the country.
In Pernambuco state, it is usually boiled and served cut in slices at breakfast, along with cheese spread or molasses.
In Colombia yam production has been specifically located in the Caribbean region , where it has become a key product in the diet of the population of this area.
In , Colombia was among the 12 countries with the highest yam production worldwide, and ranked first in yield of tons per hectare planted. Although its main use is for food, several studies have shown its usefulness in the pharmaceutical industry and the manufacture of bioplastics.
However, in Colombia, there is no evidence of the use of this product, other than food. In the Philippines, the purple ube species of yam Dioscorea alata , is eaten as a sweetened dessert called ube halaya , and is also used as an ingredient in another Filipino dessert, halo-halo.
It is also used as a popular ingredient for ice cream. This involves mashing the yam and cooking it until very well done.
The yam root was traditionally used by peasants in Vietnam to dye cotton clothes throughout the Red River and Mekong delta regions as late as the midth century, and is still used by others in the Sapa region of northern Vietnam.
In Indonesia, the same purple yam is used for preparing desserts. This involves mashing the yam and mixing it with coconut milk and sugar.
White- and off-white-fleshed yams are cut in cubes, cooked, lightly fermented, and eaten as afternoon snacks.
Mountain yam is eaten raw and grated, after only a relatively minimal preparation: the whole tubers are briefly soaked in a vinegar-water solution to neutralize irritant oxalate crystals found in their skin.
The raw vegetable is starchy and bland, mucilaginous when grated, and may be eaten plain as a side dish, or added to noodles.
Another variety of yam, jinenjo , is used in Japan as an ingredient in soba noodles. In Okinawa, purple yams Dioscorea alata are grown.
This purple yam is popular as lightly deep-fried tempura, as well as being grilled or boiled. Additionally, the purple yam is a common ingredient of yam ice cream with the signature purple color.
Purple yam is also used in other types of traditional wagashi sweets, cakes, and candy. In central parts of India, the yam is prepared by being finely sliced, seasoned with spices, and deep fried.
In southern parts of India in Tamil, the vegetable is a popular accompaniment to rice dishes and fish curry. The purple yam, D.
It is usually steamed and then cooked with spices. Yam  is, along with cassava and taro , a staple food, and is consumed boiled, roasted in a lovo , or steamed with fish or meat in curry sauce or coconut milk and served with rice.
The cost of yam is higher due to the difficulty in farming and relatively low volume of production. Because of their abundance and importance to survival, yams were highly regarded in Jamaican ceremonies and constitute part of many traditional West African ceremonies.
Yam powder is available in the West from grocers specializing in African products, and may be used in a similar manner to instant mashed potato powder, although preparation is a little more difficult because of the tendency of the yam powder to form lumps.
The powder is sprinkled onto a pan containing a small amount of boiling water and stirred vigorously.
The resulting mixture is served with a heated sauce, such as tomato and chili , poured onto it. Unlike cassava , most varieties of edible, mature, cultivated yam do not contain toxic compounds.
However, there are exceptions. Bitter compounds tend to accumulate in immature tuber tissues of white and yellow yams.
These may be polyphenols or tannin -like compounds. Wild forms of bitter yams Dioscorea dumetorum do contain some toxins, such as dihydrodioscorine , that taste bitter, hence are referred to as bitter yam.
They are usually detoxified by soaking in a vessel of salt water, in cold or hot fresh water or in a stream. The bitter compounds in these yams are water-soluble alkaloids which, on ingestion, produce severe and distressing symptoms.
Severe cases of alkaloid intoxication may prove fatal. Aerial or potato yams have antinutritional factors. In Asia, detoxification methods, involving water extraction, fermentation, and roasting of the grated tuber, are used for bitter cultivars of this yam.
The bitter compounds in yams also known locally as air potato include diosbulbin and possibly saponins , such as diosgenin.
A yam festival is usually held in the beginning of August at the end of the rainy season. People offer yams to gods and ancestors first, before distributing them to the villagers.
This is their way of giving thanks to the spirits above them. The festival is prominent among southeastern states and major tribes in Benue State , mainly around August.
Yams were taken to the Americas through precolonial Portuguese and Spanish on the borders of Brazil and Guyana, followed by a dispersion through the Caribbean.
Yams are used in Papua New Guinea , where they are called kaukau. Their cultivation and harvesting is accompanied by complex rituals and taboos.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Edible starchy tuber. This article is about the large tuberous starchy root eaten as a staple food.
For the sweet potato Ipomoea batatas , also known as a yam in North America, see sweet potato. For oca, the vegetable called yam in New Zealand, see Oxalis tuberosa.
Further information: Yam production in Nigeria. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Tongan farmer showing off his prize yams. Young women preparing pounded yam which includes mashed and pounded yam flour in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Retrieved 5 December Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper. Produtos Tradicionais Portugueses. Retrieved 13 August Clube Vinhos Portugueses.
Magabala Books. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. Lim Chin Lam. The Star. Nicolson in Asia".
Bibcode : PLoSO.. Library of Congress, United States of America. Food and Agriculture Association of the United Nations. Archaeology, language, and the African past.
Altamira Press. Outlook on Agriculture. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawai'i. Nature Conservancy. Economic Botany. Experimental Agriculture. Retrieved 3 Nov Folio Nigeria.
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